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The Directors have pleasure in presenting the Eleventh Annual Report of the ICAI Accounting Research Foundation (ICAI ARF), together with the Audited Balance-Sheet, Income and Expenditure Account and Cash Flow Statement for the Financial Year ended 31st March 2010.

The Institute of Chartered Accountants of India, set up under an Act of Parliament The Chartered Accountants Act, 1949 - has established ICAI Accounting Research Foundation (ICAI-ARF) in January, 1999, as a Section 25 company a core research body to promote research in the areas of accounting, auditing, capital markets, fiscal policies, monetary policies and other related disciplines. The ICAI ARF promoted by the Institute of Chartered Accountants of India (ICAI) has accelerated its work programme during the year as an academy for imparting, spreading and promoting knowledge, learning, education and understanding in the various fields related to the profession of accountancy. The ICAI ARF has undertaken many projects involving basic and applied research. The ICAI ARF believes that proper research inputs are necessary condition for raising the level of corporate governance, management, accounting and financial reporting. High quality research projects based on practical experience with theoretical extrapolations would also provide valuable inputs in formulation of policies and implementation thereof at macro and micro levels.


The ICAI ARF has completed another successful year, 2009-10, in establishing the Foundation as a core research body in the areas of Accounting, Auditing, Fiscal Laws and Policy, Corporate and Economic Laws and Policies, Economics, Financial Management, Financial Services, Capital and Money Markets and other related disciplines.

Recognizing the impetus required for promoting quality research in the country, the Board has adopted and pursued a multi - pronged action plan to support research projects of contemporary national and international significance in the areas related to accountancy profession. The ICAI ARF has extended an open invitation to undertake research to various institutions, research bodies, research scholars and the practitioners. Focussed advertisements were also put up on the website of ICAI ARF, ICAI, and in the Journal of ICAI The Chartered Accountant, inviting expression of interest from the members and others to carryout research in the areas of contemporary interest with requisite financial support from ICAI ARF with an option of pursuing the research or for taking up of systematic study in relevant areas. As a consequence, during the year number of research projects has been commissioned, including those with bodies like IIM, Bangalore, Institute of Public Enterprises, Oxford University and other researchers.

New value added projects will continue to be the fundamental part of subsistence of ICAI ARF. Accordingly, projects that would add value and help in spreading, promoting and advancement of various disciplines in the fields of accountancy, auditing, fiscal laws and policy, corporate and economic laws and policies, economics, financial management, financial services, capital and money markets, management information and control systems and other allied fields are being undertaken.


The main objective of the establishment of ICAI ARF is to undertake, conduct, foster, promote and provide aid and facilities for prosecuting core, fundamental, empirical, applied and other kinds of research work, projects and studies. The research work undertaken by ICAI ARF has been divided amongst two branches of research, viz., (I) Basic Research, and (II) Applied Research.

The status of major research projects completed during the year and presently undertaken/implementation under basic and applied research is given below along with particulars of proposals that are under consideration:


Basic research is designed to add to an organized body of scientific knowledge and does not necessary produce results of immediate practical value. It is concerned with formulation of a theory or a contribution to theory. The ICAI ARF involves carrying out basic research projects pertaining to subjects requiring enquiring into problems and issues significant to accounting and auditing and allied disciplines such as economics, finance and business laws through outsourcing research projects by inviting applications from research bodies/scholars and providing them financial assistance. In view of the above, the following projects have been undertaken by ICAI ARF:


The following research projects undertaken earlier have successfully been completed during the year 2009-10:

  • Research Report on Environmental Auditing submitted by Dr. Sureshramana Mayya: The overall objective of the project is to review the environmental audit, determine strengths and weakness of environmental auditing practices, assess the driving force for implementation of environmental audit, determine the role of internal auditors and to make recommendations and strategies to overcome weaknesses and barriers and strengthen driving forces to improve current auditing procedures
  • Research Report on Valuation of Intangible by Dr. R.K. Mishra and Dr. Shital Jhunjhunwala of Institute of Public Enterprises (IPE): The project aims to study the current methods of valuing intangible assets, the disclosure requirements and to develop a method to value intangible assets of firms that would help investors take more informed and better investment decisions.
  • Research Report on Business Valuation by CA. Hozefa Natalwala: The project aims to study and to derive suitable purpose oriented method for valuation of the business. Also to popularize and disseminate the benefits of valuations and exposing the need areas. The project is planned to study the existing methods applied for valuing the business for various purposes and to suggest the purpose oriented suitable method.

The following research projects have been undertaken/ continuing during the year:

  • A High Level Committee has been setup to look into the aspects relating to Sustainability Reporting: The changing business environment has created an exigency to view sustainability reporting as an important aspect. Within this view, ICAI ARF has formed a Committee on Sustainability Reporting under Chairmanship of Shri Suresh P. Prabhu, to look into the various aspects of Sustainability Reporting. The Committee is in the process of suggesting a framework for Sustainability Reporting in India that would enable the practice of measuring, disclosing, and being accountable to internal and external stakeholders for organizational performance towards goal of sustainable development. A sustainability report would provide an insight into various purposes, including:
    • Benchmarking and assessing sustainability performance with respect to laws, norms, codes, performance standards and voluntary initiatives
    • Demonstrating how organization influences and is influenced by expectations about sustainable development
    • Comparing performance within an organization and between different organizations.

Thus, sustainability reporting is thus a vehicle to communicate with stakeholders on a companys economic, environmental and social management and performance.

  • Developing a Code of Governance for Non-Profit Organisations (NPOs) by International Credit Rating Agency (ICRA): The research study primarily focuses on governance in NGOs and examines the following areas:
    • Contextualization of the concept of corporate governance with common attributes of fairness, accountability and transparency;
    • Emergence of NGOs as the predominant form of NPOs;
    • Profile of NPOs in the country by number, type and activities;
    • Legal framework governing NPO sector special emphasis relating to fiscal laws and foreign contributions;
    • Key attributes of NPOs and their performance;
    • Fund rising and its applications by NPOs;
    • Corporate Governance structure models and their applicability to NPOs, and
    • Model code of governance for NPOs.
  • Impact of International Accounting Standards/ International Financial Reporting Standards on the wider stakeholders by Dr. Tomo Suzuki, Oxford University: The SAID Business School of the University of Oxford, London has taken up this project with the ICAI ARF. This research study aims to comprehensively evaluate the impacts of IAS/IFRS on the Indian accounting professions and the economy, so as to contribute to the establishment of India's strategy and policy formulation which may help in India converging with IFRS.
  • Project on Economic Impact of Quarterly Reporting by Dr. R. Narayanaswamy, Professor, Indian Institute of Management, Bangalore: Dr. R. Narayanaswamy, Professor of the Indian Institute of Management Bangalore (IIM-B) has undertaken this project, under the aegis of the ICAI ARF, to investigate the economic impact of quarterly reporting with a view to re-evaluate the role of quarterly reporting. By providing evidence, the project results could influence policy formulation by SEBI and other agencies.
  • A Study of the processes employed by Indian Companies for encouraging creation of Intellectual Assets and fostering of thriving IPR Culture by CA. Rajesh R. Haldipur: The research project aims to investigate into the processes and practices followed by companies worldwide that have consistently built their IPR asset portfolios, to critically evaluate processes and practices followed by Indian companies in building a portfolio of IPR assets, to identify key factors as well as processes and practices influencing the success rate of creation of IPR assets and to enrich the literature on intellectual asset management in the Indian context.
  • A study on Special Economic Zone by Dr. M.Z. Farooqui: The research project aims to find out the elimination of domestic regulations, restrictions, and infrastructure inadequacies in SEZ. The research also highlights the benefits derived from SEZ.
  • A study of efficiency, volatility and liquidity of derivatives market in India by Dr. P.K. Bandgar: The research project aims to evaluate and assess the financial market in respect of derivatives, to analyze the efficiency of the Indian derivatives market, to evaluate the volatility in the Indian Stock Market as well as in the commodity markets, to examine whether the implied volatility provides empirical evidence of existence of the relation with economy and FDI and to assess the need for convergence between the securities market and the commodities market.
  • A study of cartels vis--vis Joint Ventures, in view of the provisions of the Competition Act, 2002 by CA. Umesh Dixit: The aim of the research project is to study the behavior of the enterprises, to enter into anti-competitive practices by forming cartels. Also, to assess any probable loopholes, which might be utilized by the enterprises to evade the provisions of the law by forming, planned cartels under the grab of joint ventures.
  • Social Audit of Public Money: A study to formulate Social Audit Standards and Manual in Indian context by Shri Devendra Shukla: The aim of the project is to conduct research study for developing Social Audit Standards and Manual, to collect secondary data in the field of social audit, to collect, classify and interpret primary data through organizing field research study in the field of social audit, to write final technical report incorporating recommendations of the research study and to develop Social Audit Standards and Manual.

The research studies on the following topics have been approved in principle by ICAI ARF subject to modification in methodology/scope for the research:

  • Uniform Global Currency by Mr. Sreeram Mushty: - The aim of the project is global welfare and prosperity in a win-win situation among nations. The target groups are the retail investors and savers along with employees and farmers across the world. The main activities are to suggest Global Uniform Currency (GUC) and suggest establishment of institutional framework for establishing International Lender of Last Resort.
  • Designing a Structural Model for measurement of audit expectation gap with special reference to Tamilnadu State by Dr. S. Rajaram of Kalasalingam University: This proposal aims to provide some insight into the nature and extent of the audit expectation gap in state of Tamil Nadu. The target groups are the auditors, auditees and audit beneficiaries. The audit beneficiaries will be represented by bankers, investors, brokers and general public. The auditees will be represented by company directors and accountants.
  • Accounting Reforms in Transition & Developing Economy by CA. Ayaz. A. Siddiqui:- The aim of the project is to study the scope of accounting reforms in transition and developing economies, gap analysis, study of international practices and methodology, implementation road map for accounting reforms and corporate governance and to study the government accounting system and impact analysis of accounting reforms etc. The target groups are the government and other stake holders, research groups, international funding agencies etc.
  • Role of Independent Directors: A case study on Satyam Computers Fiasco by Mr. Ashish Soni: - The aim of the project is to understand the role and responsibilities of independent directors in the functioning of any corporate Board, to develop and debate on the circumstance leading to Satyam Computer Services Ltd. corporate governance fiasco, to examine and critically evaluate the role of independent directors in Satyam Computer Service Ltd. The main activities of this research are to analyze and scrutinize the role of independent directors, shareholder activism and the larger fiduciary role of Board of Directors. The target groups are the shareholder/investors and policy makers etc.


Applied Research is directed towards the solution of immediate specific and practical problems. It is performed in relation to actual problems and under the conditions in which they are found in practice. The applied research requires systematic study to gain knowledge or understanding necessary to determine the means by which a recognized and specific need may be met.

In view of the above, ICAI ARF has undertaken projects related to conversion of accounts from cash basis to accrual system of Accounting for Municipal Corporation of Delhi (MCD), Kolkata Municipal Corporation (KMC) & Controller General of Accounts (CGA) etc. involving conceptualizing a new accounting system including the incorporation of methodologies and procedures not current in India and same had been successfully completed. The Foundation has also undertaken DFID Project relating to Strengthening Rural Decentralization (SRD) suggesting a detailed methodology and road map for under pinning the issues on a logical framework. In continuation to above, the following projects have further been undertaken by ICAI ARF:

The following research projects have been undertaken during the year:

  • ICAI ARF Department of Posts Project for implementation of Accrual system of accounting: ICAI ARF has recently taken up a pilot project for implementation of accrual accounting system in two primary postal units of the Department of Posts, one in urban area and one postal Unit in Rural Area under accounting jurisdiction of Pay & Account Office (PAO), Delhi which have been identified as pilot project, in respect of which an Memorandum of Understanding along with Strategy Paper covering scope of work, costs, time schedule, resource commitments, terms and conditions etc. was signed on 24th June 2009 by the President, ICAI being the Chairman, ICAI ARF and JS cum FA of Department of Posts. Also, a Group of Facilitators has been formed by ICAI ARF for the aforesaid project under the convenor ship of the ICAI ARF Chairman. Further, a consultant team has been appointed by ICAI ARF comprising Team Leader, two junior consultants and others, who have initiated the project work from 8th June 2009 onwards.


To further promote the applied research, the foundation office is working on the lines of the aforesaid projects and undertakes the following projects, as given below:

  • Proposal received from Kerala State Insurance Department for Accounting Reforms: The Kerala State Insurance Department (KSID) had approached the PFC Committee of ICAI for its Accounting Reforms Project related to implementation of accrual system of accounting and conversion of accounts from cash to accrual basis.
  • Proposal received from Rural Electrification Corporation Limited (REC Ltd.) regarding Vetting of Internal Audit Manual: The REC Ltd. has requested the foundation office for vetting of its Internal Audit Manual prepared by them.


During the year the revenue from research activities has been Rs. 25.94 Lakh as against Rs. 12.95 Lakh in the previous year. The excess of expenditure over income was Rs 184,820 as compared to the surplus of about Rs. 11.66 Lakh during the year 2008-09. Since there has not been any surplus in the F.Y. 2009-10, therefore no amount could be appropriated towards the building reserve. Financial results for the year 2009-10 compared with those of previous year are summarized below:

(Amount in Rs.)

Particulars 2009-10 2008-09

Revenue from Research Projects

25,94,500.00 12,95,835.00

Subscription from Members

1,80,000.00 1,90,000.00


7,31,206.00 26,02,543.00


10,00,000.00 -

Miscellaneous Income

1,06,000.00 -

Prior Period Income

- 12,24,670.00

Total Income (A)

46,11,706 53,13,048.00

Total Expenditure (B)

47,96,526 41,46,795.00

Excess of Income over Expenditure (A-B)

(1,84,820) 11,66,253.00




The Directors propose to appropriate this amount as under:

Amount transferred to Building Reserve

NIL 11,00,000.00

Amount transferred to General Reserve

NIL 66,253.00




Summarized Cash Flow Statement:



Inflow/(outflow) from operations

(39,16,188.00) 3,80,05,269.00

Inflow/(outflow) from investing activities

(27,43,941.00) (2,33,88,412.00)

Inflow/(outflow) from financing activities

43,10,994.00 (3,50,56,491.00)

Net increase/(decrease) in cash & cash equivalents

(23,49,135.00) (2,04,39,634.00)

The ICAI ARF had acquired land from Jaipur Development Authority for setting up of University. An amount of Rs. 5,54,69,619/- was paid to Jaipur Development Authority by ICAI on behalf of ICAI ARF. The aforesaid project was later on dropped pursuant to the stand taken by the Ministry of Corporate Affairs, Government of India. Subsequently, the Government of Rajasthan had cancelled the land allotted to ICAI ARF for setting up of University and instead, allotted 25 acres of land to ICAI itself for setting up of Centre of Excellence at village Chosala, Tehsil Chaksu, District Jaipur at 50% of DLC rates. Accordingly, an amount of Rs. 2,84,19,519/- has been refunded by Jaipur Development Authority after adjusting Rs.70,00,100/- payable towards the land allotted to ICAI out of Rs.3,54,19,619/- paid towards the land earlier allotted to ICAI ARF. The balance amount of Rs.2 crore along with the interest accrued amounting to Rs. 39 lakhs was recoverable from Jaipur Development Authority as on 31st March 2009. In the month of June 2009, the amount of Rs.2.39 crore has been received from Jaipur Development Authority. And the same amount has been given to ICAI towards Building Reserve Fund.

In order to strengthen the infrastructure base, ICAI ARF had taken an area of 20,000 sq. ft. in the Research Block, A-29, Sector-62, Noida, U.P. on sub-lease for a period of ten years from the Institute of Chartered Accountants of India on annual lease rental of Rs. 5,000/- along with Rs.5,00,00,000/- (Rs. 5 Crore only) payable towards the acquired built up space and the proportionate cost of construction, furniture and fixtures, installation and interiors thereof.


Recognising the fact that considerable efforts are required to promote research in the field of accounting in India, ICAI ARF has taken a number of proactive measures for undertaking applied research, and carrying out research studies. The ICAI ARF would further intensify promotional campaign for establishing direct contact with the Universities and other bodies on the one hand, and reaching out to the potential researchers throughout the country, on the other.

The list of proposed research projects of contemporary national and international significance and proposed research projects for PhD degree would be further expanded, and expression of interest invited. In selected areas, ICAI ARF may directly undertake research. Possibilities for networking with research organisation of repute, within and outside India would be explored. Series of technical documents are proposed to be published and focussed training programmes organised for dissemination of technical knowledge and skills to various stakeholders.
Initiative for applied research in newer areas including already initiated with the office Department of Posts on the lines of those taken up under MCD, KMC and CGA projects would also be considered, because they provide good base for applied research.

  • Project related to implementation of IFRS in NHPC Limited:

To further promote the applied research, ICAI ARF has undertaken a project in NHPC Ltd. for implementation of International Financial Reporting System (IFRS) in its Organization. A consultant team has been appointed by ICAI ARF to undertake the said project. The team comprises of a team leader, an assistant team leader and two more team members. The team has already submitted the project management report PMR) to NHPC Lt. and now it is working on the Impact Analysis stage.

  • Vision Document of ICAI Accounting Research Foundation:

To become a globally respected foundation that shapes research practices in India and abroad by creating new frontiers of knowledge, it is imperative that ICAI ARF is manned by research experts from the streams relevant to the accounting and allied professions. Research being the core function, the structure of ICAI ARF should revolve around the other functions providing support to this core function. Accordingly, a Vision Document has been prepared, wherein emphasis has been laid down on the future working of ICAI ARF and a re-defined structure for ICAI ARF has been finalized, divided into three separate divisions, namely,

  • Research Department
  • Accounts and Compliances Department
  • Administrative Department

ICAI ARF aims to provide high quality academic and research results. Within this view, it is proposed that, renowned faculty would be appointed from within the country and possibly from abroad also, commensurate with other research bodies. The faculty would also undertake in-house research on subjects which are of importance to the accountancy profession or those referred to the ICAI ARF by the ICAI itself. The faculty would be involved in guiding the outside researchers, where required, throughout the period of the project with a view to ensure that the outcome of the result is of high quality.


Conservation of energy:

The Foundation deals in Basic and Applied research and does not require large quantities of energy. However, wherever possible energy saving efforts are made.

Technology absorption:

Being a research organization, all the functions and resources are devoted towards research purposes. The MCD, KMC, CGA and DoP projects have been instrumental in building expertise in conversion of accounts to accrual basis.

Foreign Exchange earnings & Outgo:

Foreign Exchange earnings: Nil
Foreign Exchange Outgo: Nil

Particulars of Employees: Pursuant to provisions of section 217(2A) of the Companies Act, 1956 read with the Companies (Particulars of Employees) Rules, 1975, as amended from time to time, it is stated that no employee was in receipt of remuneration exceeding Rs. 24 Lakhs per annum or Rs. 2.00 Lakh per month during the year 2009-10.


As required by section 217(2AA), Board of Directors hereby confirms that:

  1. In the preparation of annual accounts applicable accounting standards have been followed with no material departure;
  1. We have selected such accounting policies and applied them consistently and made judgments and estimates that are reasonable and prudent so as to give a true and fair view of the state of affairs of the Foundation as at 31st March 2010 and of the income and expenditure of the Foundation for that period;
  1. We have taken proper and sufficient care for the maintenance of adequate accounting records in accordance with the provisions of the Companies Act, 1956 for safeguarding the assets of the company and for preventing and detecting fraud and other irregularities; and
  1. We have prepared the annual accounts on a going concern basis.


The foundation has maintained the cordial and harmonious relations at all levels. Efforts were made to inculcate team spirit and motivate the employees to fully develop there potential.


The Foundation has always considered that its core strength lie in quality of its human assets. Keeping in view the emerging needs for a competent and passionate leader, during the year 2009-10 in order to professionalise the executive strength, CA. (Prof.) Gourav Vallabh was appointed as Director of the foundation office.


Welfare of the employees had received due attention during the year.


During the year CA. Uttam Prakash Agarwal relinquished the charge of Chairman held by him as Ex-Officio. The Board places on record its appreciation for the commendable services and contribution made by CA. Uttam Prakash Agarwal.


M/s. V. Shankar Aiyar & Company Chartered Accountants, retire as Auditors at the conclusion of this Annual General Meeting and have further confirmed their eligibility under 224(1B) of the Companies, 1956.


The Board take this opportunity to place on record their appreciation for the continued assistance, support and co-operation received from the Ministry of Corporate Affairs- Government of India, State Governments and their Urban Local Bodies, M/s. Infosys Technologies Ltd, Office of Department of Posts (DoP), Government of India, Guru Gobind Singh Indraprastha University, Bank of India and other authorities, experts, research scholars and individuals during the course of execution of the research projects and in other disciplines.

The Board of Directors sincerely appreciate and commend the valuable contribution made by the employees of the foundation at all levels in the pursuit of achieving excellent result for another year in succession.



For & On behalf of the Board
For ICAI Accounting Research Foundation


Place:   New Delhi
Date:    6th September 2010


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